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Introduction

  • Connections from JOC Cockpit to Controllers use the JS7 - REST Web Service API and can be secured by HTTPS with TLS/SSL certificates.
    • Should JOC Cockpit and Controller be operated on the same server and network interface then no HTTPS connection between components is required.

    • Should JOC Cockpit and Controller be operated on different servers or network interfaces then this connection should be secured by HTTPS.

  • This article describes the steps required to set up secure HTTPS communication from JOC Cockpit to a Controller. This includes to use a standalone Controller or a Controller cluster with a primary and standby instance.

Prerequisites

  • Certificate stores can be managed from the command line and by use of tools that provide a GUI for this purpose:
    • the Java keytool is available from the Java JRE or JDK,
    • the Keystore Explorer is an open source utility to graphically manage certificate stores. 

Certificate Management

Private keys and certificates should be distributed as follows:



Explanation:

  • Keystore and truststore in orange color are required for any connections of JOC Cockpit to a Controller.
    • The Controller's private key and certificate for Server Authentication are added to the Controller's keystore. In case of a self-signed certificate the certificate is added to the JOC Cockpit's truststore too.
    • This step can be skipped if a CA-signed certificate is used as the Root Certificate in the JOC Cockpit's truststore is sufficient to verify Controller certificates.
  • Keystore and truststore in green color are required if mutual authentication is in place for certificate based client authentication (default).
  • The Controller's truststore in green color is required should secure connections be used by a Controller to access Agents. It is therefore recommended to set up the Controller's truststore.
  • Certificate management applies similarly to any additional standby JOC Cockpit instances acting in a cluster.

Secure Connection Setup

In the following the placeholders JOC_HOME, JETTY_HOME and JETTY_BASE are used which locate three directories. If you install Jetty with the JOC Cockpit installer then

  • JOC_HOME is the installation path that is specified during JOC Cockpit installation:
  • JETTY_HOME = JOC_HOME/jetty
  • JETTY_BASE is Jetty's base directory that is specified during JOC Cockpit installation:
    • /home/<setup-user>/sos-berlin.com/js7/joc (default on Unix)
    • C:\ProgramData\sos-berlin.com\js7\joc (default on Windows)

For Controller instances the following placeholders are used:

  • JS7_CONTROLLER_HOME points to the Controller instance's installation directory
  • JS7_CONTROLLER_CONFIG_DIR points to the Controller instance's configuration directory
    • /var/sos-berlin.com/js7/controller/config (default on Unix)
    • C:\ProgramData\sos-berlin.com\js7\controller\config (default on Windows)

Secure Connections from JOC Cockpit to Controller

This configuration is applied in order to secure the connection if JOC Cockpit and Controller are not operated on the same server and network interface.

Secure connections require authentication.

For the complete list of related configuration items see JS7 - Controller Configuration Items.

The following chapters assume mutual authentication to be in place.

Step 1: Create Controller Keystore

  • On the Controller instance's server create the keystore using the keytool from your Java JRE or JDK or some third party utility.
    • For use with a third party utility create a keystore, e.g. https-keystore.p12, in PKCS12 format and import:
      • Controller private key and certificate for Server Authentication
      • Root CA certificate
      • Intermediate CA certificates
    • For use with keytool create the keystore with the private key and certificate for Server Authentication from the command line. The below examples suggest one possible approach for certificate management, however, there may be other ways how to achieve similar results.
      • Example for use of private key and CA-signed certificate with PKCS12 keystore:

        Example how to add a private key and CA-signed certificate to a PKCS12 keystore
        # should the Controller's private key and certificate be provided with a .jks keystore (keypair.jks) then temporarily convert the keystore to pkcs12 (keystore.p12)
        #   for later use with openssl, assuming the alias name of the Controller's private key being "controller-https"
        # keytool -importkeystore -srckeystore keypair.jks -srcstoretype JKS -destkeystore keystore.p12 -deststoretype PKCS12 -srcalias controller-https
        
        # assuming the Controller's private key from a pkcs12 keystore (keystore.p12), store the Controller's private key to a .key file in PEM format (controller-https.key)
        openssl pkcs12 -in keystore.p12 -nocerts -out controller-https.key
        
        # concatenate CA Root certificate and CA Intermediate certificate to a single CA Bundle certificate file (ca-bundle.crt)
        cat RootCACertificate.crt > ca-bundle.crt
        cat CACertificate.crt >> ca-bundle.crt
        
        # Export Controller's private key (controller-https.key), Controller's certificate (controller-https.crt) and CA Bundle (ca-bundle.crt) in PEM format to a new keystore (https-keystore.p12)
        #   assume the fully qualified hostname (FQDN) of the Controller server being "controller.example.com"
        openssl pkcs12 -export -in controller-https.crt -inkey controller-https.key -chain -CAfile ca-bundle.crt -name controller.example.com -out JS7_CONTROLLER_CONFIG_DIR/private/https-keystore.p12
        
        # should you require use of a .jks keystore type then convert the pkcs12 keystore assuming the alias name of the Controller private key being "controller-https"
        # keytool -importkeystore -srckeystore https-keystore.p12 -srcstoretype PKCS12 -destkeystore JS7_CONTROLLER_CONFIG_DIR/private/https-keystore.jks -deststoretype JKS -srcalias controller-https
      • Example for use of private key and self-signed certificate with PKCS12 keystore:

        Example how to generate a private key and self-signed certificate for import into a PKCS12 keystore
        # generate Controller's private key with alias name "controller-https" in a keystore (https-keystore.p12)
        #   use the fully qualified hostname (FQDN) and name of your organization for the distinguished name
        #   consider that PKCS12 keystores require to use the same key password and store password
        keytool -genkey -alias "controller-https" -dname "CN=hostname,O=organization" -validity 1461 -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -keypass jobscheduler -keystore "JS7_CONTROLLER_CONFIG_DIR/private/https-keystore.p12" -storepass jobscheduler -storetype PKCS12
      • Example for use of private key and self-signed certificate with JKS keystore:

        Example how to generate a private key and self-signed certificate for import into a JKS keystore
        # generate Controller's private key with alias name "controller-https" in a keystore (https-keystore.jks)
        #   use the fully qualified hostname (FQDN) and name of your organization for the distinguished name
        keytool -genkey -alias "controller-https" -dname "CN=hostname,O=organization" -validity 1461 -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -keypass jobscheduler -keystore "JS7_CONTROLLER_CONFIG_DIR/private/https-keystore.jks" -storepass jobscheduler -storetype JKS
      • Explanation:

        • The -dname option specifies the certificate issuer, therefore use your own set of CN, O, OU, DC that specify the issuer's distinguished name. The O setting is required for the issuer.
        • The -keypass option accepts the password that you will need later on to manage your private key.
        • The -keystore option specifies the location of the keystore file. The keystore file should be in reach of the Controller, it is recommended to use the sub-folder private in the JS7_CONTROLLER_CONFIG_DIR directory.
        • The -storepass option specifies the password for access to the keystore file.
        • The -storetype option is used to specify the PKCS12 or JKS keystore format.
    • With the keystore being set up specify respective properties with the JS7_CONTROLLER_CONFIG_DIR/private/private.conf configuration file:
      • Example

        Example for private.conf file specifying the Controller keystore
        js7 {
            web {
                # keystore location for https connections
                https {
                    keystore {
                        # Default: ${js7.config-directory}"/private/https-keystore.p12"
                        file=${js7.config-directory}"/private/https-keystore.p12"
                        key-password="jobscheduler"
                        store-password="jobscheduler"
                    }
                }
            }
        }


        Explanation:
        • js7.web.https.keystore.file is used for the path to the keystore.
        • js7.web.https.keystore.key-password is used for access to the private key.
        • js7.web.https.keystore.store-password is used for access to the keystore.

Step 2: Set up Authentication for Controller

  • By default mutual authentication is in place.
    • JOC Cockpit is challenged by the Controller to present its Client Authentication certificate that is verified by the Controller.
      • In addition the distinguished name of the JOC Cockpit Client Authentication certificate is checked and a password is used to identify the JOC Cockpit instance.
      • Consider that any number of clustered JOC Cockpit instances can connect to a Controller.
    • If a Controller cluster is used then connections from the partnering Controller instance are authenticated by the distinguished name of the instance's Client Authentication certificate.
  • The JS7_CONTROLLER_CONFIG_DIR/private/private.conf configuration file should include authentication details like this:

    Example for private.conf file specifying JOC Cockpit authentication
    js7 {
        auth {
            users {
                # History account (used for release events)
                History {
                    distinguished-names=[
                        "DNQ=SOS CA, CN=apmacwin_joc_client, OU=IT, O=SOS, L=Berlin, ST=Berlin, C=DE"
                    ]
                    password="sha512:B793649879D61613FD3F711B68F7FF3DB19F2FE2D2C136E8523ABC87612219D5AECB4A09035AD88D544E227400A0A56F02BC990CF0D4CB348F8413DE00BCBF08"
                }
                # JOC account (needs UpdateItem permission for deployment)
                JOC {
                    distinguished-names=[
                        "DNQ=SOS CA, CN=apmacwin_joc_client, OU=IT, O=SOS, L=Berlin, ST=Berlin, C=DE"
                    ]
                    password="sha512:3662FD6BF84C6B8385FC15F66A137AB75C755147A81CC7AE64092BFE8A18723A7C049D459AB35C059B78FD6028BB61DCFC55801AE3894D2B52401643F17A07FE"
                    permissions=[
                        UpdateItem
                    ]
                }
                # Controller ID for connections by primary/secondary controller instance
                jobscheduler {
                    distinguished-names=[
                        "DNQ=SOS CA, CN=apmacwin_secondary_client, OU=IT, O=SOS, L=Berlin, ST=Berlin, C=DE"
                    ]
                }
            }
        }
    }


    Explanation:
    • The History and JOC user accounts are used by the JS7 - History Service and by the JS7 - REST Web Service API.
      • The distinguished-names property offers to add a number of distinguished names as available from the subject of Client Authentication certificates that are used by JOC Cockpit instances when connecting to the Controller.
        • Except for whitespace between attributes the precise sequence and values as available from the certificate's subject has to match this property value.
      • The password is used for authentication of the History and JOC service accounts with the Controller. Both accounts typically are running in the same JOC Cockpit instance. 
        • If HTTP connections are used then the password is the only means for authentication. If HTTPS connections with mutual authentication are used then the password is not relevant as certificate based authentication is in place.
        • The symmetric password is specified with the section joc of the Settings page of JOC Cockpit and in the private.conf file. 
          • User Input to the Settings page of JOC Cockpit can look like this:



            Input to the GUI simply accepts the password and does not require to use the prefixes sha512: or plain:.
        • In the private.conf file a hashed value or a plain text value can be specified like this:
          • password="sha512:B793649879D6..."
          • password="plain:JS7-History"
        • If the password is modified in the private.conf file then it has to be modified in the JOC Cockpit settings too to make the passwords match.
        • The password setting cannot be omitted, however, an empty password can be specified, for example with mutual authentication HTTPS connections, like this:
          • password="plain:"
        • From the private.conf file that ships by default the plain text value and the hashed values are:
          • History: 
            • Plain Text: JS7-History
            • Hash: sha512:B793649879D61613FD3F711B68F7FF3DB19F2FE2D2C136E8523ABC87612219D5AECB4A09035AD88D544E227400A0A56F02BC990CF0D4CB348F8413DE00BCBF08
          • JOC:
            • Plain Text: JS7-JOC
            • Hash: sha512:3662FD6BF84C6B8385FC15F66A137AB75C755147A81CC7AE64092BFE8A18723A7C049D459AB35C059B78FD6028BB61DCFC55801AE3894D2B52401643F17A07FE
    • The jobscheduler user account is an example for a Controller ID that is used by a partnering Controller instance.
      • This setting is not required if a standalone Controller is used.
      • For a Controller cluster the Controller ID is specified during installation.

Step 3: Set up the Controller Instance Start Script for HTTPS

  • To make a Controller use HTTPS the respective port setting has to be specified with the Controller's Instance Start Script.

    • For Unix the Instance Start Script is available from JS7_CONTROLLER_HOME/bin/controller_instance.sh:

      Example for HTTP and HTTPS port settings with Controller Instance Start Script for Unix
      # Sets the http port for the JS7 Controller.
      # Without this setting the default port 4444 is used.
      # If just a port is specified then the JS7 Controller listens to all
      # available network interfaces. This corresponds to 0.0.0.0:<port>.
      # Use the form <ip address or hostname>:<port> to indicate
      # a specific network interface the JS7 Controller should listen to.
      # The command line option --http-port beats the environment
      # variable JS7_CONTROLLER_HTTP_PORT.
      
      JS7_CONTROLLER_HTTP_PORT=localhost:4444
      
      
      # In addition to the http port an https port for the
      # JS7 Controller can be specified. If just a port is specified
      # then the JS7 Controller listens to all available network interfaces.
      # This corresponds to using 0.0.0.0:<port>.
      # Use the form <ip address or hostname>:<port> to indicate
      # a specific network interface the JS7 Controller should listen to.
      # The command line option --https-port beats the environment
      # variable JS7_CONTROLLER_HTTPS_PORT.
      
      JS7_CONTROLLER_HTTPS_PORT=apmacwin:4444
    • For Windows the Instance Start Script is available from JS7_CONTROLLER_HOME\bin\controller_instance.cmd:

      Example for HTTP and HTTPS port settings with Controller Instance Start Script for Windows
      rem # Sets the http port for the JS7 Controller.
      rem # Without this setting the default port 4444 is used.
      rem # If just a port is specified then the JS7 Controller listens to all
      rem # available network interfaces. This corresponds to 0.0.0.0:<port>.
      rem # Use the form <ip address or hostname>:<port> to indicate
      rem # a specific network interface the JS7 Controller should listen to.
      rem # The command line option --http-port beats the environment
      rem # variable JS7_CONTROLLER_HTTP_PORT.
      
      set JS7_CONTROLLER_HTTP_PORT=localhost:4444
      
      
      rem # In addition to the http port an https port for the
      rem # JS7 Controller can be specified. If just a port is specified
      rem # then the JS7 Controller listens to all available network interfaces.
      rem # This corresponds to using 0.0.0.0:<port>.
      rem # Use the form <ip address or hostname>:<port> to indicate
      rem # a specific network interface the JS7 Controller should listen to.
      rem # The command line option --https-port beats the environment
      rem # variable JS7_CONTROLLER_HTTPS_PORT.
      
      set JS7_CONTROLLER_HTTPS_PORT=apmacwin:4444


      Explanation:
      • The HTTP port is required but is limited to the localhost network interface with the localhost prefix.
      • The HTTPS port is specified with the hostname prefix that indicates the network interface.

Step 4: Configure the JOC Cockpit Truststore

The JOC Cockpit truststore is added the Root CA certificate. If self-signed certificates are used then each certificate is added to the JOC Cockpit's truststore.

  • On the JOC Cockpit server create the truststore using the keytool from your Java JRE or JDK or some third party utility.
    • For use with a third party utility create a truststore, e.g. https-truststore.p12, in PKCS12 format and import:
      • Root CA certificate
    • For use with keytool create the truststore in PKCS12 or JKS format with the Root CA certificate. The below examples suggest one possible approach for certificate management, however, there may be other ways how to achieve similar results.
      • Example for import of a Root CA certificate to a PKCS12 truststore:

        Example how to import a CA-signed certificate into a PKCS12 truststore
        # import Root CA certificate in PEM format to a PKCS12 truststore (https-truststore.p12)
        keytool -import -alias "root-ca" -file "RootCACertificate.crt" -keystore "JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/https-truststore.p12" -storetype PKCS12
      • Example for use of a self-signed Controller certificate with a PKCS12 truststore:

        Example for import of a self-signed Controller certificate to a PKCS12 truststore
        # on Controller server: export Controller's certificate from keystore (https-keystore.p12) identified by its alias name (controller-https) to a file in PEM format (controller-https.crt)
        keytool -exportcert -rfc -noprompt -file "controller-https.crt" -alias "controller-https" -keystore "JS7_CONTROLLER_CONFIG_DIR/private/https-keystore.p12" -storepass jobscheduler -storetype PKCS12
        
        # on JOC Cockpit server: import the Controller's certificate from a file in PEM format (controller-https.crt) identified by its alias name (controller-https) to the JOC Cockpit PKCS12 truststore (https-truststore.p12)
        keytool -importcert -noprompt -file "controller-https.crt" -alias "controller-https" -keystore "JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/https-truststore.p12" -storepass jobscheduler -storetype PKCS12 -trustcacerts
      • Example for use of a self-signed Controller certificate with a JKS truststore:

        Example for import of a self-signed Controller certificate to a JKS truststore
        # on Controller server: export Controller's certificate from keystore (https-keystore.jks) identified by its alias name (controller-https) to a file in PEM format (controller-https.crt)
        keytool -exportcert -rfc -noprompt -file "controller-https.crt" -alias "controller-https" -keystore "JS7_CONTROLLER_CONFIG_DIR/private/https-keystore.jks" -storepass jobscheduler -storetype JKS
        
        # on JOC Cockpit server: import the Controller's certificate from a file in PEM format (controller-https.crt) identified by its alias name (controller-https) to the JOC Cockpit JKS truststore (https-truststore.jks)
        keytool -importcert -noprompt -file "controller-https.crt" -alias "controller-https" -keystore "JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/https-truststore.jks" -storepass jobscheduler -trustcacerts -storetype JKS
  • The location of the truststore is added to the JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/joc.properties configuration file like this:

    • Example for PKCS12 truststore

      Example how to specify a PKCS12 truststore location with the joc.properties file
      ### Location of the truststore that contains the certificates of all
      ###   Controllers used for HTTPS connections. The path can be absolute or
      ###   relative to joc.properties
      
      truststore_path = ../../resources/joc/https-truststore.p12 
      truststore_type = PKCS12
      truststore_password = jobscheduler
    • Example for JKS truststore

      Example how to specify a JKS truststore location with the joc.properties file
      ### Location of the truststore that contains the certificates of all
      ###   Controllers used for HTTPS connections. The path can be absolute or 
      ###   relative to joc.properties
      
      truststore_path = ../../resources/joc/https-truststore.jks
      truststore_type = JKS
      truststore_password = jobscheduler
  • Hostname verification by default is in place with the JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/joc.properties configuration file.

    Example how to specify hostname verification with the joc.properties file
    ################################################################################
    ### Specifies if hostname verification should be carried out for HTTPS connections.
    ### Default true
    
    https_with_hostname_verification = true

Mutual Authentication for JOC Cockpit and Controller

This configuration is applied in order to enable mutual authentication

  • from JOC Cockpit to the Controller:
    • the JOC Cockpit verifies the Controller's certificate for Server Authentication
    • the Controller verifies the JOC Cockpit's certificate for Client Authentication
  • from pairing Controller instances.

Step 1: Create/Update JOC Cockpit Client Keystore

For mutual authentication JOC Cockpit has to hold a Client Authentication private key and certificate in its keystore.

  • This can be simplified by use of a private key/certificate pair that is created for both extended key usages Server Authentication and Client Authentication. In this case a single private key and certificate is stored with the JOC Cockpit's keystore as indicated with the JS7 - JOC Cockpit HTTPS Connections article.
  • If separate private key/certificate pairs should be used for Server Authentication and Client Authentication purposes then use of separate certificate stores for JOC Cockpit is recommended:
    • The keystore holds the private key/certificate for Server Authentication. The location of the keystore is configured with JETTY_BASE/start.ini.
    • The client keystore holds the private key/certificate for Client Authentication. The location of the client keystore is configured with JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/joc.properties.

The following steps are applied if a separate client keystore is used with JOC Cockpit.

  • On the JOC Cockpit server create the client keystore using the keytool from your Java JRE or JDK or some third party utility.
    • For use with a third party utility create a client keystore, e.g. https-client-keystore.p12, in PKCS12 format and import:
      • JOC Cockpit private key and certificate for Client Authentication
      • Root CA certificate
      • Intermediate CA certificates
    • For use with keytool create the client keystore in PKCS12 or JKS format according to the steps indicated with JS7 - JOC Cockpit HTTPS Connections: Step 2: Create JOC Cockpit Keystore chapter.
      • Apply the indicated steps to the client keystore and use the private key/certificate pair for Client Authentication.
  • The location of the client keystore is added to the JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/joc.properties configuration file like this:

    • Example for PKCS12 client keystore:

      Example how to specify the PKCS12 client keystore location with joc.properties file
      ### Location of the client keystore that contains the private key and 
      ###   certificate for JOC Cockpit client authentication relative to
      ###   joc.properties
      
      keystore_path = ../../resources/joc/https-client-keystore.p12 
      keystore_type = PKCS12
      keystore_password = jobscheduler
    • Example for JKS client keystore:

      Example how to specify the JKS client keystore location with joc.properties file
      ### Location of the client keystore that contains the private key and 
      ###   certificate for JOC Cockpit client authentication relative to
      ###   joc.properties
      
      keystore_path = ../../resources/joc/https-client-keystore.jks
      keystore_type = JKS
      keystore_password = jobscheduler

Step 2: Create Controller Truststore

  • On the Controller server create the truststore using the keytool from your Java JRE or JDK or some third party utility.
    • For use with a third party utility create a truststore, e.g. https-truststore.p12, in PKCS12 format and import:
      • Root CA certificate
    • For use with keytool create the truststore in PKCS12 or JKS format with the Root CA certificate. The below examples suggest one possible approach for certificate management, however, there may be other ways how to achieve similar results.
      • Example for import of a Root CA certificate to a PKCS12 truststore:

        Example how to import a CA-signed certificate into a PKCS12 truststore
        # on Controller server: import Root CA certificate in PEM format to a PKCS12 truststore (https-truststore.p12)
        keytool -import -alias "root-ca" -file "RootCACertificate.crt" -keystore "JS7_CONTROLLER_CONFIG_DIR/private/https-truststore.p12" -storetype PKCS12
      • Example for export/import of self-signed client authentication certificate to a PKCS12 keystore:

        Example how to export/import a self-signed certificate to a PKCS12 truststore
        # on JOC Cockpit server: export JOC Cockpit's certificate from client keystore (https-client-keystore.p12) identified by its alias name (joc-client-https) to a file in PEM format (joc-client-https.crt)
        keytool -exportcert -rfc -noprompt -file "joc-client-https.crt" -alias "joc-client-https" -keystore "JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/https-client-keystore.p12" -storepass jobscheduler -storetype PKCS12
        
        # on Controller server: import JOC Cockpit's certificate in PEM format to a PKCS12 truststore (https-truststore.p12)
        keytool -import -alias "joc-client-https" -file "joc-clent-https.crt" -keystore "JS7_CONTROLLER_CONFIG_DIR/private/https-truststore.p12" -storetype PKCS12
      • Example for export/import of self-signed client authentication certificate to a JKS keystore:

        Example how to export/import a self-signed certificate to a JKS truststore
        # on JOC Cockpit server: export JOC Cockpit's certificate from client keystore (https-client-keystore.jks) identified by its alias name (joc-client-https) to a file in PEM format (joc-client-https.crt)
        keytool -exportcert -rfc -noprompt -file "joc-client-https.crt" -alias "joc-client-https" -keystore "JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/https-client-keystore.jks" -storepass jobscheduler
        
        # on Controller server: import JOC Cockpit's certificate in PEM format to a JKS truststore (https-truststore.jks)
        keytool -import -alias "joc-client-https" -file "joc-client-https.crt" -keystore "JS7_CONTROLLER_CONFIG_DIR/private/https-truststore.jks" -storetype JKS

Notes

  • A restart of the respective component is required to apply modifications to the JS7_CONFIG_DIR/private/private.conf file of the Controller or to configuration files of JOC Cockpit .

Further Resources


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