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Three methods of user authentication - Shiro, LDAP and Database - and user authorization can be implemented for the JobScheduler JOC Cockpit. A general description of the authentication and authorization is presented in the JOC Cockpit - Authentication and Authorization article. This article describes the configuration required to implement each of these three authentication methods as well as user authorization. This configuration information is held in an Apache ShiroTM .ini file and is used by both the JOC Cockpit GUI and the JobScheduler Web Services API.


This article describes the configuration of user authentication and authorization by directly editing the shiro.ini file. This method of configuration can be used with all three methods of user authentication. The JOC Cockpit also provides a configuration editor for authentication and user authorization, which is described in the Authentication and Authorization - Managing User Accounts article. Note that some direct configuration of the shiro.ini file will still be required when the configuration editor is used with LDAP authentication and when Database authentication is used. 

Configuration File Structure

The Default Configuration

Shiro Authentication

The shiro.ini file is delivered with a default configuration for Shiro authentication. This configuration includes a user profile (root:root), which is active and has a role all with all permissions. This profile allows a system administrator to log onto the JOC Cockpit and access all of its features after installation. Once the root User has created an administrative user account with the necessary permissions, this account can be used to implement other user profiles, set and change passwords and, if required, deactivate the root profile.

The location of the shiro.ini file after installation of the JOC Cockpit is described below.

LDAP and Database Authentication

An example configuration for LDAP and Database authentication is not included with the JOC Cockpit. However, example configurations are presented later in this article (LDAP, Database) to provide system administrators with sufficient information to implement these types of authentication themselves.


Default authorization profiles are provided in the shiro.ini file. System administrators are free to edit these profiles as required.

The shiro.ini File Location

The location of the shiro.ini file is dependent on whether or not the Jetty web server included with the JOC Cockpit installation archive is installed with the JOC Cockpit.

Location of the shiro.ini file when Jetty is Installed with the JOC Cockpit

If the Jetty provided as part of the JOC Cockpit distribution is installed with the JOC Cockpit then the shiro.ini file can be found in the resources sub-folder in the jetty_base directory where the jetty_base directory is specified during the installation process of the JOC Cockpit. See the JOC Cockpit - Installation article for more information.

  • On Windows systems the default location for the resources directory will be:
  • On Unix systems the default location will be:

Location of the shiro.ini file when Jetty is not Installed with the JOC Cockpit

If the Jetty provided as part of the JOC Cockpit distribution is not installed with the JOC Cockpit then the location of the shiro.ini file and resources directory will depend on previous installation history. See the Configuration with Alternative Web Servers section of the JOC Cockpit - Installation article for more information.

In this situation the shiro.ini file and other resources can be moved by the system administrator to an appropriate directory in the web server to be used.

shiro.ini File Syntax Restrictions

Upper case letters and special characters should not be used, blank spaces within names should be avoided.

JOC Cockpit Updates

A first installation of the JOC Cockpit will write a single instance of the shiro.ini file to the resources/joc folder. As the shiro.ini file is intended to be modified by system administrators, an update or a full installation of the JOC Cockpit that finds an existing shiro.ini file will not overwrite this file but create a shiro.ini-example file alongside the .ini file. This new file will contain the current example configuration and give system administrators a reference configuration containing any configuration updates.

The Internal shiro.ini File Structure

The shiro.ini file will have between two and four sections, depending on the authentication method specified and whether or not folder permissions are specified. These sections are:

  • [users]
    • Contains authentication information, including passwords, when Shiro authentication is used.
    • Contains the roles assigned to users after authentication when Shiro authentication is used.
    • Is not required for other authentication methods.
  • [main]
    •  If LDAP authentication is to be used:
      • contains configuration information for accessing the LDAP directory service;
      • contains a mapping of LDAP groups onto JOC Cockpit authorization roles.
    •  If Database authentication is to be used:
      • contains configuration information for accessing the database via Hibernate.
    • Contains session timeout information for the JOC Cockpit.
    • Is required for all authentication methods.
  • [roles]
    • Contains the JOC Cockpit authorization information - i.e. the permissions assigned to roles.
    • Is required for Shiro and LDAP authentication methods.
  • [folders]
    • Defines the set of folders that are available for a role.
    • Is optional for all authentication methods.
    • Folders are specified relative to the root of the JobScheduler's live folder.

Note that:

  • The default configuration does not include the [folders] section - this is only required when folder Permissions are configured and will be either dynamically added by the Add Folder function in the Manage Accounts view or should be manually added if the shiro.ini file is being directly configured.
  • The order in which these sections are positioned in the shiro.ini file is not important.

[users] Configuration

This section contains the authentication information when Shiro authentication is used. It is only required when the Shiro authentication is used.

User information for seven example users is delivered with the JOC Cockpit as shown in the listing below, with a role and password being mapped onto each user account name.

  • Passwords are written in plain text in releases 1.11.0 to 1.11.4. Passwords are hashed by default with release 1.11.5 and newer.
    • The configuration of password hashing and how to add password hashing to releases 1.11.0 to 1.11.4 is described in the [main] section below.
  • Roles are described in more detail in the Matrix of Roles and Permissions section of the JOC Cockpit - Authentication and Authorization article. The roles are then mapped onto permissions in the [roles] section of this file (described below).

The default user account information for Shiro authentication is shown in the listing below:

Shiro Configuration - Example User Configuration  Expand source
  • "As delivered" only one user/role mapping is active - root, with a default password as shown in the listing above. The other user configurations are commented out. System administrators can add and modify these configurations as required.
  • It should be clear that the default passwords should replaced either before user profiles are activated or as soon as possible afterwards.
  • In this default configuration user names and role names are identical. This is not necessary.
  • Passwords are stored by default in open text for releases 1.11.0 to 1.11.4. Passwords are encrypted by default with release 1.11.5 onward.
  • Note that the api_user is not intended for use with the JOC Cockpit but instead for use by other applications accessing the JobScheduler Web Services.


  • user=password, role1, role2
  • Where:
    • user is the user name.
    • password is either saved in open text, which was the default for releases 1.11.0 to 1.11.4, or as a hash, which is the default for 1.11.5 onward.
    • role entries must be identical to roles specified in the [roles] section of the file. Any number of roles can be assigned to a user. Multiple roles are separated by commas.
    • Each entry is specified on a new line, password and role are separated by a comma.

Role Name Restrictions:

  • Role names may not contain a blank space.

[roles] Configuration

This section contains the authorization information i.e. the mapping of roles onto permissions. This section is required when either Shiro or LDAP authentication is used.

An default mapping of seven roles is delivered with the JOC Cockpit installation. The roles in this mapping correspond with the seven roles specified in the [users] section of the file. System administrators can add additional and modify role configurations as required. The default mapping is shown in the listing below:

Shiro Configuration - Default Roles Configuration  Expand source

Note the following:

  • The default mapping provided with the JOC Cockpit installation is only a subset of all the permissions that can be set. A full list of the permissions available is included in the Authentication and Authorization - Permissions for the JOC Cockpit Web Service article.
  • The permissions for the api_user are not provided for the JOC Cockpit but for the JobScheduler Web Services API. For this reason the permissions structure is different and uses:
    • sos:products:commands:... instead of sos:products:joc_cockpit:....


  • role=permission1, \
  • where:
    • permissions are separated by commas (","),
    • each permission is shown in the .ini file on a new line to ease readability,
    • a backward slash after each permission is the line continuation character,
    • individual permissions are specified hierarchically, with each "level" being separated by a colon (":"),
    • spaces (" ") are not allowed in role names,
    • a wildcard ("*") can be used for all permissions,
    • a minus sign ("-") can be used at the start of a permission to disallow a user access to a resource that they would otherwise be able to use (See, for example the permission set for the api_user in the listing above).
      The following example shows the role demo is allowed access to all products but is not allowed to see status of JobScheduler Master Clusters or any information related to Orders in the JOC Cockpit.

      Shiro Configuration - Permisisons Exclusion
    • Granting and denying of permissions is carried out according to the union principle from set theory - all permissions granted are brought together and then all permissions denied are removed. 

  • The order in which roles and permissions are denied or removed is not important.
    To illustrate this point consider the - perhaps artificial - situation where a user is given two roles: api_user and incident_manager, defined in the order shown in the code block below and each with their default permissions as listed above.
    • The api_manager role allows the demo_user to carry out all job-related operations in the JOC Cockpit with the exception of viewing the job configuration. For convenience, these permissions are shown in the code block below.

    • The incident_manager role allows the demo_user to view all job-related operations.

      Shiro Configuration - Multiple Roles
    • Regardless of the order in which the roles of the demo_user are defined, the demo_user will be able to view job all job operations except job configuration.
  • The full default matrix of permissions is shown in the Matrix of Roles and Permissions section of the JOC Cockpit - Authentication and Authorization article.
  • Roles and permissions are configurable to the following extent:
    • What cannot be changed:
      • The number and type of permissions is fixed.
    • What can be changed:
      • The number of roles can be changed.
      • The permission value yes / no can be changed for each permission in each role.
    • Restrictions:
      • The JOC Cockpit will only show the names of a limited set of roles. These are listed in the [users] Configuration section above.

Multiple JobScheduler Master Instances

The default role configuration grants roles with the same permissions for all JobScheduler Masters or Master Clusters in a scheduling environment. 

The ID of a JobScheduler Master or Master Cluster can be used to allow or disallow access to that Master or Master cluster.

  • The following example shows the JobScheduler Master with ID "scheduler_1" being granted access by all operations but for JobScheduler Master with ID "scheduler_2" only allowed limited permissions are granted and all permissions on JobScheduler Universal Agents.

  • Note that the jobscheduler_master:view permission should never be restricted to a particular JobScheduler ID as this will prohibit all other JobScheduler Masters from being seen. See the block below for an example configuration:

    Shiro Configuration - JobScheduler IDs

[main] Configuration

The contents of this section depends on the authentication method used and whether or not Password Hashing has been implemented.

Shiro Simple Authentication

The only information required in the [main] section for Shiro simple authentication is a session timeout. The default session timeout setting is 15 minutes as shown in the listing below:

Main Configuration - Shiro Authentification - Example Information


  • Timeout is specified in milliseconds.

Password Hashes


Password hashing is available from release 1.11.5 onward and is activated as part of a new installation of the JOC cockpit.

Note that password hashing will not be automatically activated when updating an existing JOC Cockpit installation to version 1.11.5 - see the next section for more information.

Password hashing is activated by the following lines of code in the [main] section of the shiro.ini file:

Note that the following alternative values for the passwordMatcher parameter are deprecated:

The default activated root user account is given the hash for the password root.

User account passwords set in the Account Manager view are then automatically hashed.

Changing the default hashAlgorithm or the hashIterations

  • For this you have to define a hashService and and a passwordService:
    • the hashService must be assigned to the passwordService and
    • the passwordService is to be assigned to the passwordMatcher.
  • The hashService is:
    • org.apache.shiro.crypto.hash.DefaultHashService
  • The passwordService is:
    • org.apache.shiro.authc.credential.DefaultPasswordService

Example Configuration
passwordService and hashService can be named as required.

Example Pasword Hash Configuration

Possible algorithms include:

  • SHA-1
  • SHA-384
  • SHA-256
  • SHA-512
  • MD5
  • MD2

The default is SHA-512
The default for hashIterations is the default coming from org.apache.shiro.authc.credential.DefaultPasswordService = 500000 .

Setting the private salt

When using the Shiro1CryptFormat (which is the default, you can set a private salt value).
The public salt is a random value. The random value can be combined with a private salt.

Example with Private Salt Setting

The following configuration example uses a private salt with the md5 algorithm and 25 iterations.
Note that value for the private salt must be Base64 encoded. In this example the value is "sos".

Example Pasword Hash Configuration with Private Salt

Setting the Hash Format

The default format is org.apache.shiro.crypto.hash.format.Shiro1CryptFormat.

However, the hash format can be changed to HEX or BASE64. Please note that in this case neither can a private salt be set nor can generatePublicSalt be set to true. The reason for this is that Shiro always adds a random public salt when a private salt is given.

Example with Hash Format Setting

The following configuration example uses Hex format, the default SHA-512 algorithm and the default value for iterations=1.
Note that the default for iterations when using the format org.apache.shiro.crypto.hash.format.Shiro1CryptFormat is 500000.

Example Pasword Hash Configuration

Updating from Releases 1.11.x to 1.11.5

The shiro.ini file is a configuration file and is not updated - i.e. overwritten - during an update of the JOC Cockpit. However, the shiro.ini-example file, which is to be found in the same folder as the shiro.ini file, will be updated with new configuration information.

Update Procedure
  1. Update the JOC Cockpit following the procedure described in the JOC Cockpit - Installation article.
  2. Start the Jetty Web Service.
  3. Log into the JOC Cockpit with a user account that has edit permissions for the Manage Accounts view.
  4. Copy and uncomment the following two lines from the [main] section of the shiro.ini-example file to the [main] section of the shiro.ini file:

  5. Save the shiro.ini file.
  6. Goto the Manage Accounts view.
  7. Open the Edit Account modal window for any user.
  8. Click on Save.
  9. All user passwords in the shiro.ini file will now be saved as hashed values when using the JOC Cocpit Account Management and users can log in as before the update.
    1. New passwords can be entered in plain text and will be saved as hashed values.

Activating Password Hashes in Releases 1.11.0 to 1.11.4

To use SHA512 hashed passwords in the shiro.ini file:

  • Download the CLI tool for hashing passwords from the Shiro download page
  • For each user account that is saved in the shiro.ini file:
    • Use the CLI tool to generate a hashed password for the account:
      • Do this using:
        • java -jar shiro-tools-hasher-1.3.2-cli.jar --algorithm SHA-512 -p
    • Save the password in the [users] section of the shiro.ini file (instead of the plain text password).
  • Add the following lines to the [main] section of the shiro.ini file:
  • Save the shiro.ini file. It is not necessary to restart the Jetty web service if modifications in the [users] section for hashed passwords are performed.
  • Note that for releases 1.11.0 to 1.11.4 the JOC Account Management does not support hashed passwords and will overwrite a hashed password with any new plain text password if you change a password. As a consequence you can not use the JOC Account Management to change the password using a plain text password to be converted to the hashed password.

LDAP Authentication

Please note that:

  • roles for users that are authenticated via LDAP can be specified in the [users] section of the shiro.ini without a password. The syntax is then:
    • username = , role1, role2
  • the [users] section can be deleted if roles from the shiro.ini are not to be used at all.

The [main] section contains the following information:

  • specification of the LDAP directory service,
  • a mapping of the JOC Cockpit role names specified in the [roles] section of the file onto LDAP group names and
  • a session timeout.

Getting the roles for a user account

You have to specify:


%s will be substituted by the user account.

To get the correct values for ldapRealm.userDnTemplate, ldapRealm.searchBase and ldapRealm.userSearchFilter

  • please create a query that finds all groups the user account is a member of
    • set ldapRealm.userSearchFilter to this query with %s for the user name.
      • Example:
        • (&(objectClass=User)(cn=%s))
      • Example:
        • (uniqueMember=uid=%s,dc=example,dc=com)
  • Then identify the attribute in the result that contains the groupName
    • set ldapReal.groupNameAttribute to this value (default is memberOf)
  • Then assign the value of attribute specified in groupNameAttribute to the groupRolesMap
    • Example:
      • ldapRealm.groupRolesMap="value in attribute groupNameAttribute":"it_operator
  • The userDnTemplate is identifiying the user entry in LDAP (e.g. the value of uniqueMember)

Simple Example LDAP Configuration

An example for LDAP configuration is provided with the listing below:

Main Configuration - LDAP Authentification - Simple Example  Expand source


Example of an Active Directory (AD) LDAP Configuration


Example of an Active Directory LDAP Configuration  Expand source


It should only be necessary for system administrators to modify three parts of this section:

  • the LDAP directory service information in lines 4 to 6 of the listing,
  • the mapping of LDAP groups to roles - here occupying lines 13 to 16 and which is described in the next sub-section and
  • the timeout setting for sessions as shown in the last line of the listing and which is specified in milliseconds.

Example Mapping LDAP Groups to Roles:

  • In line 15 of the first listing above members of the JobScheduler_it_operator LDAP group are assigned the it_operator role
  • More than one role can be specified for members of an LDAP group - for example:
    • in line 16 of the first listing members of the LDAP jobscheduler_admin group are assigned the roles of administrator and application_manager.

Example LDAP Configuration with a public LDAP Server

There are many ways of configuring LDAP authentication and authorization. The method you use depends on the structure of groups and users in your LDAP Server. You will find a working example for use with a public LDAP Server described on:

We cannot guarantee that the public LDAP Server will always be online, however, if you struggle with LDAP configuration then you might want to give it a try to have a working example.

To use this example:

  • Make a backup of your current shiro.ini file and then copy the contents of the example code block into your shiro.ini file.
  • Restart your web services server.
  • Log into the JOC Cockpit using the "gauss" account name and the password "password".

Main Configuration - LDAP Authentification - Short example for public LDAP Server  Expand source

Example LDAP Configuration with a public LDAP Server and mixed LDAP and Shiro Authentication

The following code block is a copy of the short example above showing the authentication of a single LDAP user account, gauss, and an additional Shiro-authenticated administrator user account.

  • The Shiro-authenticated user account has been added to the [users] section as normal.
  • Note that line 21 of the listing has been modified to read:
    • securityManager.realms = $ldapRealm, $iniRealm 
Main Configuration - Short example for public LDAP Server with mixed LDAP and Shiro Authentication  Expand source
Main Configuration - LDAP Authentification - Complete example for public LDAP Server  Expand source

Example LDAP Configuration with Several LDAP Servers

LDAP configuration with sevaral LDAP servers is achieved by defining more than one LDAP realm as shown in the next code block.

Example LDAP Configuration with Several LDAP Servers  Expand source



Assigning roles in the shiro.ini when using LDAP

It is possible to mix LDAP authentication with local authorization from a shiro.ini file.

  • In the [users] section
    • specify the user name but do not specify a password for the user.
    • specify the list of roles that are assigned to this user.
    • Important: The assignment must start with a comma to skip the password assignment.
  • In the [main] section
    • you do not have to specify the LDAP group mapping to roles.
    • Both the roles specified with the user assignment and the roles retrieved from the ldapRealm.groupRolesMap mapping will be added to the user. [users] assignments are optional.

Example LDAP Configuration for a public LDAP Server with local roles

Main Configuration - LDAP Authentification - Example for public LDAP Server with explicitly assigned roles  Expand source


Database Authentication

System administrators can implement database authentication manually, using a separate database to the JobScheduler(s) and, if required, a separate DBMS.

The JOC Cockpit configuration required to use database authentication is described in this section along with an example set of database tables. System administrators have to configure and maintain the database and tables manually as well as their query strings - there is neither a GUI available for this nor is batch support provided.

The [users] and [roles] sections of the shiro.ini file can be deleted or completely commented out when database authentication is to be used.

The information required in the [main] section for database authentication is shown in the following listing:

Main Configuration - Database Authentification - Example Configuration

Hibernate is used to access the database - in the example listed above an Oracle database is specified. System administrators must organize the necessary configuration information to address the database to be used to store authentication information themselves. 

It should only be necessary for system administrators to modify two parts of this section of the shiro.ini file:

  • the location of the Hibernate configuration file in line 3 of the listing,
  • the default timeout setting, which is in the example is 15 minutes (specified in milliseconds as shown).

Maintenance and Security Considerations

While access in order to manipulate the authentication information a database requires the database password, a system administrator still has to manually enter and modify user passwords with the associated security risks and maintenance costs.

Example Database Tables

The following table names and structure have to be used when configuring database authentication:

  1. Table of User Names and Passwords (SOS_USER) - Structure

    2SOS_USER_NAMEVARCHAR2(250 BYTE)Yes(null)2(null)
    3SOS_USER_PASSWORDVARCHAR2(250 BYTE)Yes(null)3(null)

    Table of User Names and Passwords (SOS_USER) - Contents


  2. Table of Roles (SOS_USER_ROLE) - Structure

    SOS_USER_ROLEVARCHAR2(250 BYTE)Yes(null)2(null)


    Table of Roles (SOS_USER_ROLE) - Contents


  3. Table Mapping Roles to Permissions (SOS_USER_PERMISSION) - Structure

    SOS_USER_ROLEVARCHAR2(250 BYTE)Yes(null)4(null)
  4. Table Mapping Roles to Permissions (SOS_USER_PERMISSION) - Contents


    Shown are the default permissions for user root (ID=7) mapped to role all (ID=1) and user administrator (ID=1) mapped to role administrator (ID=2).

[folders] Configuration


This feature is available from the following issues:

  • JOC-137 - Permissions for Folders Released
  • JOC-155 - New Permissions Editor Released

 Administrators can add a [folders] section to the shiro.ini file to define the folders that can be accessed by a role within the live folder of a JobScheduler configuration.

The following examples should make this clear:

Folders Configuration - Examples

In the examples:

  • the it_operator role has recursive access to the /sos, /nested and /split folders and all their sub-folders;
  • the business_user role has access to the whole live folder and
  • the admin role has recursive access to the /sos folder and non-recursive access to the /abcd folder. It does not have access to any sub-folders of the /abcd folder.


  • The default configuration - i.e. when no folders are specified for a Role - is that a Role has access to all folders within the live folder.
  • If access to a folder is specified then access for that Role to all other folders is automatically denied. Any access required to other folders has then to be specified individually.
  • Access is not inherited unless specified using /*, in which case it is inherited to all child folders.
  • If a Job Chain contains a Job that is located in a different folder and permission has not been granted for the Job folder, then the functions from the Job menu will still be available in the JOC Cockpit as the Job Chain already has the necesary permissions.
  • It is not necessary for the Jetty server to be restarted before changes made to folder permissions are implemented - a simple log-out and log-in is sufficient.

Folder Permissions for Users with Multiple Roles

When a user has  multiple roles - for example, incident_manager and business_user - then the folder permissions for both roles will be added together and treated as if the permissions had been set for a single role. This means that if, for example, a permission is specified for the incident_manager role and one user has both incident_manager and business_user roles, then all folder permissions for users with the business_user role will automatically be withdrawn.

Folder Permissions for Specific JobSchedulers

Folder permisions can also be specified for specific JobScheduler Masters.

When a permission is specified for one JobScheduler Master it does not automatically affect the permissions for all other JobScheduler Masters accessed from the JOC Cockpit.

In the example below:

  • The business_user can only access the /nested/*  and /split/* folders on scheduler_id1 but will have permission to access all folders on scheduler_id2.
  • The it_operator and admin roles have permissions for the sos subfolders on all JobScheduler Masters.
Folders Configuration - Examples

Error Handling

  • The shiro.ini file is not validated by the JOC Cockpit. This means that a configuration error will lead to that entry not being processed.
    • For example, a spelling error in a permission will lead to that permission not being set.
    • The permissions granted for an account can be inspected in the JOC Cockpit interface by logging into the interface using that account and checking the Permissions section of the User Profile view

Additional Information

Jetty has to be restarted after changes are made to the [main] section of the shiro.ini file.