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Introduction

Three methods of user authentication - Shiro, LDAP and Database - along with user authorization can be implemented for the JobScheduler JOC Cockpit. A general description of the authentication and authorization is presented in the JOC Cockpit - Authentication and Authorization article. This article describes the configuration required to implement each of these three authentication methods as well as user authorization. This configuration information is held in an Apache ShiroTM .ini file and is used by both the JOC Cockpit GUI and the JobScheduler Web Services API.

Scope

This article describes the configuration of user authentication and authorization by directly editing the shiro.ini file. This method of configuration can be used with all three methods of user authentication. The JOC Cockpit also provides a configuration editor for authentication and user authorization, which is described in the Authentication and Authorization - Managing User Accounts article. Note that some direct configuration of the shiro.ini file will still be required when the configuration editor is used with LDAP authentication and when Database authentication is used. 

Configuration File Structure

The Default Configuration

Shiro Authentication

The shiro.ini file is delivered with a default configuration for Shiro authentication. This configuration includes a user profile (root:root), which is active and has a role all with all permissions. This profile allows a system administrator to log onto the JOC Cockpit and access all of its features after installation. Once the root User has created an administrative user account with the necessary permissions, this account can be used to implement other user profiles, set and change passwords and, if required, deactivate the root profile.

The location of the shiro.ini file after installation of the JOC Cockpit is described below.

LDAP and Database Authentication

An example configuration for LDAP and Database authentication is not included with the JOC Cockpit. However, example configurations are presented later in this article (Database Authentication) and in the separate LDAP Configuration Article. These configurations are intended to provide system administrators with sufficient information to implement these types of authentication themselves.

Example User Profiles

An example set of six example user profiles is included in the shiro.ini file, in addition to the root user profile. These profiles are intended to allow users to explore the functioning of the authentication and authorization and to provided a base for administrators wishing to developing their own configuration. These profiles are deactivated by default and not shown in the JOC Cockpit Manage Accounts view unless they are activated .They are commented out but can be easily activated by a system administrator that has permission to modify the shiro.ini file.

The shiro.ini File Location

The location of the shiro.ini file is dependent on whether or not the Jetty web server included with the JOC Cockpit installation archive is installed with the JOC Cockpit.

Location of the shiro.ini file when Jetty is Installed with the JOC Cockpit

If the Jetty provided as part of the JOC Cockpit distribution is installed with the JOC Cockpit then the shiro.ini file can be found in the resources sub-folder in the jetty_base directory where the jetty_base directory is specified during the installation process of the JOC Cockpit. See the JOC Cockpit - Installation article for more information.

  • On Windows systems the default location for the resources directory will be:
  • On Unix systems the default location will be:

Location of the shiro.ini file when Jetty is not Installed with the JOC Cockpit

If the Jetty provided as part of the JOC Cockpit distribution is not installed with the JOC Cockpit then the location of the shiro.ini file and resources directory will depend on previous installation history. See the Configuration with Alternative Web Servers section of the JOC Cockpit - Installation article for more information.

In this situation the shiro.ini file and other resources can be moved by the system administrator to an appropriate directory in the web server to be used.

shiro.ini File Syntax Restrictions

Upper case letters and special characters should not be used, blank spaces within names should be avoided.

JOC Cockpit Updates

A first installation of the JOC Cockpit will write a single instance of the shiro.ini file to the resources/joc folder. As the shiro.ini file is intended to be modified by system administrators, an update or a full installation of the JOC Cockpit that finds an existing shiro.ini file will not overwrite this file but create a shiro.ini-example file alongside the .ini file. This new file will contain the current example configuration and give system administrators a reference configuration containing any configuration updates.

The Internal shiro.ini File Structure

The shiro.ini file will have between two and four sections, depending on the authentication method specified and whether or not folder permissions are specified. These sections are:

  • [users]
    • Contains authentication information, including passwords, when Shiro authentication is used.
    • Contains the roles assigned to users after authentication when Shiro authentication is used.
    • Is not required for other authentication methods.
  • [main]
    •  If LDAP authentication is to be used:
      • contains configuration information for accessing the LDAP directory service;
      • contains a mapping of LDAP groups onto JOC Cockpit authorization roles.
    •  If Database authentication is to be used:
      • contains configuration information for accessing the database via Hibernate.
    • Contains session timeout information for the JOC Cockpit.
    • Is required for all authentication methods.
  • [roles]
    • Contains the JOC Cockpit authorization information - i.e. the permissions assigned to roles.
    • Is required for Shiro and LDAP authentication methods.
  • [folders]
    • Defines the set of folders that are available for a role.
    • Is optional for all authentication methods.
    • Folders are specified relative to the root of the JobScheduler's live folder.

Note that:

  • The default configuration does not include the [folders] section - this is only required when folder Permissions are configured and will be either dynamically added by the Add Folder function in the Manage Accounts view or should be manually added if the shiro.ini file is being directly configured.
  • The order in which these sections are positioned in the shiro.ini file is not important.

[users] Configuration

This section contains the authentication information when Shiro and LDAP authentication is used. It is not required when Database authentication is used.

User information for seven example Shiro authentication accounts is delivered with the JOC Cockpit as shown in the first two listings below, The configuration of each User Account is made up of a role and a password which is mapped onto each user account name.

  • Passwords are written in plain text in releases 1.11.0 to 1.11.4. Passwords are hashed by default with release 1.11.5 and newer.
    • The configuration of password hashing and how to add password hashing to releases 1.11.0 to 1.11.4 is described in the [main] section Thebelow.
  • The function of individual Roles is described in more detail in the Matrix of Roles and Permissions section of the JOC Cockpit - Authentication and Authorization article. The roles are then mapped onto permissions in the [roles] section of this file (described below).
  • "As delivered" only one user/role mapping is active - root, with a default password as shown in the listing above. The other user configurations are commented out. System administrators can add and modify these configurations as required.
  • It should be clear that the default passwords should replaced either before user profiles are activated or as soon as possible afterwards.
  • In this default configuration user names and role names are identical. This is not necessary.
  • Note that the api_user is not intended for use with the JOC Cockpit but instead for use by other applications accessing the JobScheduler Web Services.

The default user account information for Shiro authentication for releases 1.11.0 to 1.11.4 with plain text passwords is shown in the listing below:

Shiro Configuration - Example User Configuration  Expand source

 

The default user account information for Shiro authentication for releases 1.11.5 and newer with hashed passwords is shown in the listing below:

Shiro Configuration - Example User Configuration  Expand source
  • Note that the password hashes provided only work with the default password hashing configuration. This configuration is described in more detail in the [main] section below

Syntax

  • user=password, role1, role2
  • Where:
    • user is the user account name.
      • Names of accounts used with shiro authentication may not include blank spaces.
    • password is either saved in open text, which was the default for releases 1.11.0 to 1.11.4, or as a hash, which is the default for 1.11.5 onward.
    • role entries must be identical to roles specified in the [roles] section of the file. Any number of roles can be assigned to a user. Multiple roles are separated by commas.
    • Each entry is specified on a new line, password and role are separated by a comma.

Syntax for LDAP Authentication

Role Name Restrictions:

  • Role names may not contain a blank space.

[roles] Configuration

This section contains the authorization information i.e. the mapping of roles onto permissions. This section is required when either Shiro or LDAP authentication is used.

An default mapping of seven roles is delivered with the JOC Cockpit installation. The roles in this mapping correspond with the seven roles specified in the [users] section of the file. System administrators can add additional and modify role configurations as required. The default mapping is shown in the listing below:

Shiro Configuration - Default Roles Configuration  Expand source

Note the following:

  • The default mapping provided with the JOC Cockpit installation is only a subset of all the permissions that can be set. A full list of the permissions available is included in the Authentication and Authorization - Permissions for the JOC Cockpit Web Service article.
  • The permissions for the api_user are not provided for the JOC Cockpit but for the JobScheduler Web Services API. For this reason the permissions structure is different and uses:
    • sos:products:commands:... instead of sos:products:joc_cockpit:....

Syntax

  • role=permission1, \
         permission2
  • where:
    • permissions are separated by commas (","),
    • each permission is shown in the .ini file on a new line to ease readability,
    • a backward slash after each permission is the line continuation character,
    • individual permissions are specified hierarchically, with each "level" being separated by a colon (":"),
    • spaces (" ") are not allowed in role names,
    • a wildcard ("*") can be used for all permissions,
    • a minus sign ("-") can be used at the start of a permission to disallow a user access to a resource that they would otherwise be able to use (See, for example the permission set for the api_user in the listing above).
      The following example shows the role demo is allowed access to all products but is not allowed to see status of JobScheduler Master Clusters or any information related to Orders in the JOC Cockpit.

      Shiro Configuration - Permisisons Exclusion
    • Granting and denying of permissions is carried out according to the union principle from set theory - all permissions granted are brought together and then all permissions denied are removed. 

  • The order in which roles and permissions are denied or removed is not important.
    To illustrate this point consider the - perhaps artificial - situation where a user is given two roles: api_user and incident_manager, defined in the order shown in the code block below and each with their default permissions as listed above.
    • The api_manager role allows the demo_user to carry out all job-related operations in the JOC Cockpit with the exception of viewing the job configuration. For convenience, these permissions are shown in the code block below.

    • The incident_manager role allows the demo_user to view all job-related operations.

      Shiro Configuration - Multiple Roles
    • Regardless of the order in which the roles of the demo_user are defined, the demo_user will be able to view job all job operations except job configuration.
  • The full default matrix of permissions is shown in the Matrix of Roles and Permissions section of the JOC Cockpit - Authentication and Authorization article.
  • Roles and permissions are configurable to the following extent:
    • What cannot be changed:
      • The number and type of permissions is fixed.
    • What can be changed:
      • The number of roles can be changed.
      • The permission value yes / no can be changed for each permission in each role.
    • Restrictions:
      • The JOC Cockpit will only show the names of a limited set of roles. These are listed in the [users] Configuration section above.

Multiple JobScheduler Master Instances

The default role configuration grants roles with the same permissions for all JobScheduler Masters or Master Clusters in a scheduling environment. 

The ID of a JobScheduler Master or Master Cluster can be used to allow or disallow access to that Master or Master cluster.

  • The following example shows the JobScheduler Master with ID "scheduler_1" being granted access by all operations but for JobScheduler Master with ID "scheduler_2" only allowed limited permissions are granted and all permissions on JobScheduler Universal Agents.

  • Note that the jobscheduler_master:view permission should never be restricted to a particular JobScheduler ID as this will prohibit all other JobScheduler Masters from being seen. See the block below for an example configuration:

    Shiro Configuration - JobScheduler IDs

[main] Configuration

The contents of this section depends on the authentication method used and whether or not Password Hashing has been implemented.

Shiro Simple Authentication

The only information required in the [main] section for Shiro simple authentication is a session timeout. The default session timeout setting is 15 minutes as shown in the listing below:

Main Configuration - Shiro Authentification - Example Information

Syntax

  • Timeout is specified in milliseconds.

Password Hashing

FEATURE AVAILABILITY STARTING FROM RELEASE 1.11.5

Password hashing is available from release 1.11.5 onward and is activated as part of a new installation of the JOC cockpit.

Note that password hashing will not be automatically activated when updating an existing JOC Cockpit installation to version 1.11.5 or newer - see the next section for more information.

Password hashing is activated by the following lines of code in the [main] section of the shiro.ini file:

The default activated root user account is given the hash for the password root.

User account passwords set in the Account Manager view are then automatically hashed.

Changing the default hashAlgorithm and/or the hashIterations Parameters

The two lines of code in the previous code block implement the default hashAlgorithm and hashIterations Parameters.

  • The default for hashAlgorithm is SHA-512
  • The default for hashIterations is the default coming from org.apache.shiro.authc.credential.DefaultPasswordService = 500000.

However, individual hashAlgorithm and hashIterations Parameters can be set if required.

  • For this you have to define a hashService and and a passwordService:
    • the hashService must be assigned to the passwordService and
    • the passwordService is to be assigned to the passwordMatcher.
  • The hashService is:
    • org.apache.shiro.crypto.hash.DefaultHashService
  • The passwordService is:
    • org.apache.shiro.authc.credential.DefaultPasswordService
Example Configuration with Custom hashAlgorithm and hashIterations Parameters

passwordService and hashService can be named as required.

Example Pasword Hash Configuration

Possible algorithms include:

  • SHA-1
  • SHA-384
  • SHA-256
  • SHA-512
  • MD5
  • MD2
Deprecated Parameters

Note that the following alternative values for the passwordMatcher parameter are deprecated:

Setting a Private Salt

When using the Shiro1CryptFormat (which is the default, you can set a private salt value).
The public salt is a random value. The random value can be combined with a private salt.

Example with Private Salt Setting

The following configuration example uses a private salt with the md5 algorithm and 25 iterations.
Note that value for the private salt must be Base64 encoded. In this example the value is "sos".

Example Pasword Hash Configuration with Private Salt

Setting the Hash Format

The default hash format is org.apache.shiro.crypto.hash.format.Shiro1CryptFormat.

However, the hash format can be changed to HEX or BASE64. Please note that in this case neither can a private salt be set nor can generatePublicSalt be set to true. The reason for this is that Shiro always adds a random public salt when a private salt is given.

Example with Hash Format Setting

The following configuration example uses Hex format, the default SHA-512 algorithm and the default value for iterations=1.
Note that the default for iterations when using the format org.apache.shiro.crypto.hash.format.Shiro1CryptFormat is 500000.

Example Pasword Hash Configuration

Activating Password Hashing for Configurations with Plain Text Passwords

JOC Cockpit Installations using plain text passwords - for example, systems using releases 1.11 to 1.11.4 - can be readily modified to use password hashes after the JOC Cockpit has been updated to release 1.11.5 or newer. Note that password hashing is not automatically activated when updating to release 1.11.5 or newer of the JOC Cockpit. Activation is a separate step that can be carried out by system administrators as required.  

The shiro.ini file is a configuration file and is not updated - i.e. overwritten - during an update of the JOC Cockpit. However, the shiro.ini-example file, which is to be found in the same folder as the shiro.ini file, will be updated with new configuration information. Default password hashing configuration information (shown in the code block in the Activation Procedure section below) can be copied from the shiro.ini-example file to the shiro.ini file.

Activation Procedure
  1. Update the JOC Cockpit to release 1,11.5 following the procedure described in the JOC Cockpit - Installation article.
  2. Start the Jetty Web Server / check that the Web Service is running.
  3. Log into the JOC Cockpit with a user account that has edit permissions for the Manage Accounts view. (In the default configuration root and administrator accounts have the necessary permissions.)
  4. Copy and uncomment the following two lines from the [main] section of the shiro.ini-example file to the [main] section of the shiro.ini file:

  5. Delete all user accounts from the shiro.ini file (they will not be lost from the JOC Cockpit).
  6. Save the shiro.ini file.
  7. Go to the Manage Accounts view in the JOC Cockpit.
  8. Open the Edit Account modal window for any user.
  9. Click on Submit.
  10. All user accounts (Account Names, Passwords and Roles) will now be written back into the shiro.ini file by the JOC Cockpit and the Passwords will now be saved as hashed values. Users will be able to log in as before the update and new Passwords can be entered in plain text and will be saved as hashed values.

Activating Password Hashing in Releases 1.11.0 to 1.11.4

To use SHA512 hashed passwords in the shiro.ini file without updating to Release 1.11.5 or newer:

  • Download the CLI tool for hashing passwords from the Shiro download page
  • For each user account that is saved in the shiro.ini file:
    • Use the CLI tool to generate a hashed password for the account:
      • Do this using:
        • java -jar shiro-tools-hasher-1.3.2-cli.jar --algorithm SHA-512 -p
    • Save the password in the [users] section of the shiro.ini file (instead of the plain text password).
  • Add the following lines to the [main] section of the shiro.ini file:
  • Save the shiro.ini file. It is not necessary to restart the Jetty web service if modifications in the [users] section for hashed passwords are performed.
  • Note that for releases 1.11.0 to 1.11.4 the JOC Account Management does not support hashed passwords and will overwrite a hashed password with any new plain text password if you change a password. As a consequence you can not use the JOC Account Management to change passwords after hashed passwords have started to be used.

LDAP Authentication

The configuration of the shiro.ini file for use with LDAP Authentication is described in the LDAP Configuration article.

 

Database Authentication

System administrators can implement database authentication manually, using a separate database to the JobScheduler(s) and, if required, a separate DBMS.

The JOC Cockpit configuration required to use database authentication is described in this section along with an example set of database tables. System administrators have to configure and maintain the database and tables manually as well as their query strings - there is neither a GUI available for this nor is batch support provided.

The [users] and [roles] sections of the shiro.ini file can be deleted or completely commented out when database authentication is to be used.

The information required in the [main] section for database authentication is shown in the following listing:

Main Configuration - Database Authentification - Example Configuration

Hibernate is used to access the database - in the example listed above an Oracle database is specified. System administrators must organize the necessary configuration information to address the database to be used to store authentication information themselves. 

It should only be necessary for system administrators to modify two parts of this section of the shiro.ini file:

  • the location of the Hibernate configuration file in line 3 of the listing,
  • the default timeout setting, which is in the example is 15 minutes (specified in milliseconds as shown).

Maintenance and Security Considerations

While access in order to manipulate the authentication information a database requires the database password, a system administrator still has to manually enter and modify user passwords with the associated security risks and maintenance costs.

Example Database Tables

The following table names and structure have to be used when configuring database authentication:

  1. Table of User Names and Passwords (SOS_USER) - Structure

     COLUMN_NAMEDATA_TYPENULLABLEDATA_DEFAULTCOLUMN_IDCOMMENTS
    1IDNUMBER(9,0)No(null)1(null)
    2SOS_USER_NAMEVARCHAR2(250 BYTE)Yes(null)2(null)
    3SOS_USER_PASSWORDVARCHAR2(250 BYTE)Yes(null)3(null)


    Table of User Names and Passwords (SOS_USER) - Contents

     IDSOS_USER_NAMESOS_USER_PASSWORD
    11administratorsecret
    22application_managersecret
    33it_operatorsecret
    44incident_managersecret
    55business_usersecret
    66api_usersecret
    77rootroot



  2. Table of Roles (SOS_USER_ROLE) - Structure

    COLUMN_NAMEDATA_TYPENULLABLEDATA_DEFAULTCOLUMN_IDCOMMENTS
    IDNUMBER(9,0)No(null)1(null)
    SOS_USER_ROLEVARCHAR2(250 BYTE)Yes(null)2(null)

     

    Table of Roles (SOS_USER_ROLE) - Contents

    IDSOS_USER_ROLE
    1administrator
    2application_manager
    3it_operator
    4incident_manager
    5business_user
    6api_user
    7all



  3. Table Mapping Roles to Permissions (SOS_USER_PERMISSION) - Structure

    COLUMN_NAMEDATA_TYPENULLABLEDATA_DEFAULTCOLUMN_IDCOMMENTS
    IDNUMBER(9,0)No(null)1(null)
    ROLE_IDNUMBER(9,0)Yes(null)2(null)
    USER_IDNUMBER(9,0)Yes(null)3(null)
    SOS_USER_ROLEVARCHAR2(250 BYTE)Yes(null)4(null)
  4. Table Mapping Roles to Permissions (SOS_USER_PERMISSION) - Contents

    IDROLE_IDUSER_IDSOS_USER_PERMISSION
    117(null)
    221(null)
    31(null)sos:products
    42(null)sos:products:joc_cockpit:jobscheduler_master:view
    52(null)sos:products:joc_cockpit:jobscheduler_master:pause
    62(null)sos:products:joc_cockpit:jobscheduler_master:continue
    72(null)sos:products:joc_cockpit:jobscheduler_master:restart
    82(null)sos:products:joc_cockpit:jobscheduler_master:terminate
    92(null)sos:products:joc_cockpit:jobscheduler_master:abort
    102(null)sos:products:joc_cockpit:jobscheduler_master_cluster
    112(null)sos:products:joc_cockpit:jobscheduler_universal_agent

    Shown are the default permissions for user root (ID=7) mapped to role all (ID=1) and user administrator (ID=1) mapped to role administrator (ID=2).

[folders] Configuration

FEATURE AVAILABILITY STARTING FROM RELEASE 1.11.2

This feature is available from the following issues:

  • JOC-137 - Permissions for Folders Released
  • JOC-155 - New Permissions Editor Released

 Administrators can add a [folders] section to the shiro.ini file to define the folders that can be accessed by a role within the live folder of a JobScheduler configuration.

The following examples should make this clear:

Folders Configuration - Examples

In the examples:

  • the it_operator role has recursive access to the /sos, /nested and /split folders and all their sub-folders;
  • the business_user role has access to the whole live folder and
  • the admin role has recursive access to the /sos folder and non-recursive access to the /abcd folder. It does not have access to any sub-folders of the /abcd folder.

Note:

  • The default configuration - i.e. when no folders are specified for a Role - is that a Role has access to all folders within the live folder.
  • If access to a folder is specified then access for that Role to all other folders is automatically denied. Any access required to other folders has then to be specified individually.
  • Access is not inherited unless specified using /*, in which case it is inherited to all child folders.
  • If a Job Chain contains a Job that is located in a different folder and permission has not been granted for the Job folder, then the functions from the Job menu will still be available in the JOC Cockpit as the Job Chain already has the necesary permissions.
  • It is not necessary for the Jetty server to be restarted before changes made to folder permissions are implemented - a simple log-out and log-in is sufficient.

Folder Permissions for Users with Multiple Roles

When a user has  multiple roles - for example, incident_manager and business_user - then the folder permissions for both roles will be added together and treated as if the permissions had been set for a single role. This means that if, for example, a permission is specified for the incident_manager role and one user has both incident_manager and business_user roles, then all folder permissions for users with the business_user role will automatically be withdrawn.

Folder Permissions for Specific JobSchedulers

Folder permisions can also be specified for specific JobScheduler Masters.

When a permission is specified for one JobScheduler Master it does not automatically affect the permissions for all other JobScheduler Masters accessed from the JOC Cockpit.

In the example below:

  • The business_user can only access the /nested/*  and /split/* folders on scheduler_id1 but will have permission to access all folders on scheduler_id2.
  • The it_operator and admin roles have permissions for the sos subfolders on all JobScheduler Masters.
Folders Configuration - Examples

Error Handling

  • The shiro.ini file is not validated by the JOC Cockpit. This means that a configuration error will lead to that entry not being processed.
    • For example, a spelling error in a permission will lead to that permission not being set.
    • The permissions granted for an account can be inspected in the JOC Cockpit interface by logging into the interface using that account and checking the Permissions section of the User Profile view

Additional Information

Jetty has to be restarted after changes are made to the [main] section of the shiro.ini file.

References