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Introduction

Prerequisites

  • Certificate stores can be managed from the command line and by use of tools that provide a GUI for this purpose:
    • the Java Keytool is available from the Java JRE or JDK,
    • the Keystore Explorer is an open source utility to graphically manage certificate stores. 

Certificate Management

Certificate Management for secure connections of clients to JOC Cockpit

To secure the JOC Cockpit user interface for HTTPS access by clients (user browsers or REST API clients) the following private key and certificates should be in place:



Then proceed with chapter Set up a secure connection of user browsers to the JOC Cockpit

Certificate Management for secure connections from JOC Cockpit to Controller

Should JOC Cockpit and Controller be operated on the same server and network interface then no HTTPS connection between both components is required.

Should JOC Cockpit and Controller be operated on different servers then this connection should be secured by HTTPS.

Private keys and certificates should be distributed as follows:



The Controller's private key and certificate are added to the Controller's keystore. In case of a self-signed certificate the certificate is added to the JOC Cockpit truststore as well. This step can be skipped if a CA-signed certificate is used as the Root Certificate in the JOC Cockpit truststore is sufficient to verify Controller certificates.

Secure Connection Setup

Set up a secure connection for clients to JOC Cockpit

This configuration is applied in order to enable clients (user browser, REST API client) to access the JOC Cockpit by use of HTTPS.

In the following the placeholders JOC_HOME, JETTY_HOME and JETTY_BASE are used which locate three directories. If you install Jetty with the JOC installer then

  • JOC_HOME is the installation path which is specified during the JOC Cockpit installation:
    • /opt/sos-berlin.com/js7/joc (default on Linux)
    • C:\Program Files\sos-berlin.com\js7\joc (default on Windows)
  • JETTY_HOME = JOC_HOME/jetty
  • JETTY_BASE is Jetty's base directory which is specified during the JOC Cockpit installation:
    • /home/<setup-user>/sos-berlin.com/js7/joc (default on Linux)
    • C:\ProgramData\sos-berlin.com\js7\joc (default on Windows)

Step 1: Add the HTTPS module to Jetty

  • On the JOC Cockpit server run the following command and replace the JETTY_HOME and JETTY_BASE placeholders as specified above:

    Add HTTPS module to Jetty
    java -jar "JETTY_HOME/start.jar" -Djetty.home="JETTY_HOME" -Djetty.base="JETTY_BASE" --add-to-start=https
  • Having executed the above command you should find a new folder JETTY_BASE/etc
    • Jetty expects a Keystore in this folder with the name "keystore" by default.

      Jetty doesn't start if it doesn't find a keystore corresponding its settings.

  • In addition a number of entries in the JETTY_BASE/start.ini configuration file for TLS/SSL settings such as the HTTPS port are added.

Step 2: Create the Keystore and Truststore for Jetty

  • On the JOC Cockpit server create the Java Keystore using the Keytool from your Java JRE or JDK or some third party utility.
    • For use with a third party tool
      • create a Keystore, e.g. https-keystore.p12, in PKCS12 format and import:
        • JOC Cockpit private key and certificate
        • Root CA certificate
        • Intermediate CA certificates
      • create a Truststore, e.g. https-truststore.p12, in PKCS12 format and import:
        • Root CA certificate
    • For use with Keytool generate the Java Keystore in JKS or PKCS12 format with the private key and public certificate for Jetty. The below examples suggest one possible approach for certificate management, however, there may be other ways how to achieve similar results.
      • Example for import of CA signed certificate to a PKCS12 keystore:

        Example how to add a CA signed certificate to a PKCS12 Keystore
        # should the JOC Cockpit's private key and certificate be provided with a .jks keystore (keypair.jks) then temporarily convert the keystore to pkcs12 (keystore.p12)
        #   for later use with openssl, assuming the alias name of the JOC Cockpit private key being "joc-https"
        # keytool -importkeystore -srckeystore keypair.jks -destkeystore keystore.p12 -deststoretype PKCS12 -srcalias joc-https
        
        # assuming your JOC Cockpit private key from a pkcs12 keystore (keystore.p12), store the JOC Cockpit private key to a .key file in PEM format (joc-https.key)
        openssl pkcs12 -in keystore.p12 -nocerts -out joc-https.key
        
        # concatenate CA Root certificate and CA Intermediate certificates to a single CA Bundle certificate file (ca-bundle.crt)
        cat RootCACertificate.crt > ca-bundle.crt
        cat CACertificate.crt >> ca-bundle.crt
        
        # Export JOC Cockpit private key (joc-https.key), JOC Cockpit certificate (joc-https.crt) and CA Bundle (ca-bundle.crt) in PEM format to a new keystore (https-keystore.p12)
        #   assume the fully qualified hostname (FQDN) of the JOC Cockpit server being "joc.example.com"
        openssl pkcs12 -export -in joc-https.crt -inkey joc-https.key -chain -CAfile ca-bundle.crt -name joc.example.com -out "JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/https-keystore.p12"
        
        # should you require use of a .jks keystore type then convert the pkcs12 keystore assuming the alias name of the JOC Cockpit private key being "joc-https"
        # keytool -importkeystore -srckeystore https-keystore.p12 -srcstoretype PKCS12 -destkeystore https-keystore.jks -deststoretype JKS -srcalias joc-https
      • Example for use of self-signed certificate with a PKCS12 keystore

        Example how to generate a self-signed certificate for import into a PKCS12 Keystore
        # generate JOC Cockpit private key with alias name "joc-https" in a keystore (https-keystore.p12)
        #   use the fully qualified hostname (FQDN) and name of your organization for the distinguished name
        #   consider that PKCS12 keystores require to use the same key password and store password
        keytool -genkey -alias "joc-https" -dname "CN=hostname,O=organization" -validity 1461 -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -keypass jobscheduler -keystore "JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/https-keystore.p12" -storepass jobscheduler -storetype PKCS12
      • Example for use of self-signed certificate with a JKS keystore

        Example how to generate a self-signed certificate for import into a JKS Keystore
        # generate JOC Cockpit private key with alias name "joc-https" in a keystore (https-keystore.jks)
        #   use the fully qualified hostname (FQDN) and name of your organization for the distinguished name
        keytool -genkey -alias "joc-https" -dname "CN=hostname,O=organization" -validity 1461 -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -keypass jobscheduler -keystore "JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/https-keystore.jks" -storepass jobscheduler -storetype JKS
      • Example for import of a Root CA certificate to a PKCS12 truststore

        Example how to generate a self-signed certificate for import into a PKCS12 Keystore
        # import Root CA certificate in PEM format to a a PKCS12 truststore (https-truststore.p12)
        keytool -import -alias "root-ca" -file "RootCACertificate.crt" -keystore "JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/https-truststore.p12"
      • Explanation:

        • Replace the JETTY_BASE placeholder as specified above.
        • The -dname option specifies the certificate issuer, therefore use your own set of CN, OU, DC that specify the issuer's distinguished name. The O setting is required for the issuer.
        • The -keypass option accepts the password that you will need later on to manage your private key. 
        • The -keystore option specifies the location of your Keystore file.
        • The -storepass option specifies the password for access to your Keystore file.
        • The -storepass option is used for the PKCS12 keystore format, this option is not required for the JKS keystore format.
  • Alternatively apply a private key and certificate that are issued by your certificate authority or a trusted authority.

Step 3: Configure Jetty

  • Edit the following entries in the JETTY_BASE/start.ini configuration file corresponding to the Java Keystore:

    ## Keystore file path (relative to $jetty.base)
    jetty.sslContext.keyStorePath=resources/joc/https.keystore.p12
    
    ## Truststore file path (relative to $jetty.base)
    jetty.sslContext.trustStorePath=resources/joc/https-truststore.p12
    
    ## Keystore password
    jetty.sslContext.keyStorePassword=jobscheduler
    
    ## KeyManager password (same as keystore password for pkcs12 keystore type)
    jetty.sslContext.keyManagerPassword=jobscheduler
    
    ## Truststore password
    jetty.sslContext.trustStorePassword=jobscheduler


    Explanations

    • Specify the location of the Keystore with the keyStorePath setting and optionally of the Truststore with the trustStorePath setting. A location relative to the JETTY_BASE directory can be specified.
    • Specify the password for your Keystore with the keyStorePassword setting. If a Truststore is used then specify its password accordingly with the trustStorePassword setting.
    • The password specified with the keyManagerPassword setting is used for access to your private key. The same password as for the keyStorePassword setting has to be used for a PKCS12 keystore type.

  • Specify the HTTPS port with the following entry of the JETTY_BASE/start.ini configuration file (default HTTPS port is 48446):

    ## Connector port to listen on
    jetty.ssl.port=48446

Step 4: Deactivate HTTP Access

To deactivate HTTP access add a comment to the following module directive in your JETTY_BASE/start.ini configuration file like this:

# Module: http
# --module=http

Set up a secure connection from JOC Cockpit to the Controller

This configuration is applied in order to secure the connection if JOC Cockpit and Controller are not operated on the same server. If not otherwise stated then the steps for HTTPS configuration are performed on the server that hosts the Controller.

Step 1: Create the Java Keystore

  • On the JobScheduler Master server create the Java Keystore using the Keytool from your Java JRE or JDK or some third party utility.
    • For use with a third party tool
      • create a Keystore, e.g. https-keystore.p12, in PKCS12 format and import:
        • Controller private key and certificate
        • Root CA certificate
        • Intermediate CA certificates
      • create a Truststore, e.g. https-truststore.p12, in PKCS12 format and import:
        • Root CA certificate
    • Generate the Java Keystore with the private key and the certificate for the Controller and export the certificate to a second Keystore that is later on used by the JOC Cockpit. The below examples suggest one possible approach for certificate management, however, there may be other ways how to achieve similar results.
      • Example for use of CA signed certificate with PKCS12 keystore format


        Example how to add a CA signed private key and certificate to a PKCS12 Keystore
        # should the Controller's private key and certificate be provided with a .jks keystore (keypair.jks) then temporarily convert the keystore to pkcs12 (keystore.p12)
        #   for later use with openssl, assuming the alias name of the Controller private key being "controller-https"
        # keytool -importkeystore -srckeystore keypair.jks -destkeystore keystore.p12 -deststoretype PKCS12 -srcalias controller-https
        
        # assuming the Controller's private key from a pkcs12 keystore (keystore.p12), store the Controller private key to a .key file in PEM format (controller-https.key)
        openssl pkcs12 -in keystore.p12 -nocerts -out controller-https.key
        
        # concatenate CA Root certificate and CA Intermediate certificate to a single CA Bundle certificate file (ca-bundle.crt)
        cat RootCACertificate.crt > ca-bundle.crt
        cat CACertificate.crt >> ca-bundle.crt
        
        # Export Controller private key (controller-https.key), Controller certificate (controller-https.crt) and CA Bundle (ca-bundle.crt) in PEM format to a new keystore (https-keystore.p12)
        #   assume the fully qualified hostname (FQDN) of the Controller server being "controller.example.com"
        openssl pkcs12 -export -in controller-https.crt -inkey controller-https.key -chain -CAfile ca-bundle.crt -name controller.example.com -out https-keystore.p12
        
        # should you require use of a .jks keystore type then convert the pkcs12 keystore assuming the alias name of the Controller private key being "controller-https"
        # keytool -importkeystore -srckeystore https-keystore.p12 -srcstoretype PKCS12 -destkeystore https-keystore.jks -deststoretype JKS -srcalias controller-https
      • Example for use of self-signed certificate with PKCS12 keystore format

        Example how to generate a self-signed certificate for import into a PKCS12 Keystore
        # generate Controller's private key with alias name "controller-https" in a keystore (https-keystore.p12)
        #   use the fully qualified hostname (FQDN) and name of your organization for the distinguished name
        #   consider that PKCS12 keystores require to use the same key password and store password
        keytool -genkey -alias "controller-https" -dname "CN=hostname,O=organization" -validity 1461 -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -keypass jobscheduler -keystore "https-keystore.pk12" -storepass jobscheduler -storetype PKCS12
      • Example for use of self-signed certificate with JKS keystore format

        Example how to generate a self-signed private key and certificate for import into a JKS Keystore
        # generate Controller's private key with alias name "controller-https" in a keystore (https-keystore.jks)
        #   use the fully qualified hostname (FQDN) and name of your organization for the distinguished name
        keytool -genkey -alias "controller-https" -dname "CN=hostname,O=organization" -validity 1461 -keyalg RSA -keysize 2048 -keypass jobscheduler -keystore "https-keystore.jks" -storepass jobscheduler
      • Explanations

        • Replace the SCHEDULER_DATA placeholder as specified above.
        • The -dname option specifies the certificate issuer, therefore use your own set of CN, O, OU, DC that specify the issuer's distinguished name. The O setting is required for the issuer.
        • The -keypass option accepts the password that you will need later on to manage your private key. With the default password being used no further settings are required as explained below.
        • The -keystore option specifies the location of your Keystore file. 
          • The Keystore file should be in reach of the JobScheduler Master, it is therefore recommended to use a sub-folder private in the ./config directory.
          • Using the default file name "private-https.jks" will save the effort of adding further settings as explained above.
        • The -storepass option specifies the password for access to your Keystore file. For the handling of the default password the same applies as stated with the -keypass option.
        • The -storetype option is used for the PKCS12 keystore format, this option is not required for the JKS keystore format.
    • If not otherwise configured then the Controller by default uses the password jobscheduler for the respective Keystore.
    • If you choose an individual password for the Controler Keystore then adjust the following properties in the SCHEDULER_DATA/config/private/private.conf configuration file:
      • Explanations
        • jobscheduler.master.webserver.https.keystore.file is used for the path to the Keystore
        • jobscheduler.master.webserver.https.keystore.password is used for the Keystore password
        • jobscheduler.master.webserver.https.keystore.key-password is used for the password of your private key
      • Example

        Example for private.conf file specifying the Master Keystore
        jobscheduler.master.webserver.https.keystore {
          file = "C:/ProgramData/sos-berlin.com/jobscheduler/master110/config/private/private-https.jks"
          # Backslashes are written twice (as in JSON notation):
          # file = "\\\\other-computer\\share\\my-keystore.jks"
          password = "jobscheduler"
          key-password = "jobscheduler"
        }
  • Export the JobScheduler Master public certificate for use with the JOC Cockpit Web Service
    • Example for export with JKS keystore format

      Example how to export the Master public certificate from a JKS Keystore
      # export Master public certificate from keystore (private-https.jks) identified by its alias name (master-https) to a file in PEM format (master-https.crt)
      keytool -exportcert -rfc -noprompt -file "master-https.crt" -alias "master-https" -keystore "SCHEDULER_DATA/config/private/private-https.jks" -storepass jobscheduler
    • Example for export with PKCS12 keystore format

      Example how to export the Master public certificate from a PKCS12 Keystore
      # export Master public certificate from keystore (private-https.p12) identified by its alias name (master-https) to a file in PEM format (master-https.crt)
      keytool -exportcert -rfc -noprompt -file "master-https.crt" -alias "master-https" -keystore "SCHEDULER_DATA/config/private/private-https.p12" -storepass jobscheduler -storetype PKCS12
    • The exported public certificate of each JobScheduler Master has to be imported to the Java Truststore that is used by the JOC Cockpit.

Step 2: Set up Authentication to JobScheduler Master

  • The JobScheduler Master HTTPS web service is only accessible to authenticated users that are identified by the JobScheduler ID.
    • The JobScheduler ID is specified on installation of a JobScheduler Master and is a unique string.
    • Should you operate a JobScheduler cluster then the same JobScheduler ID is used that has been assigned to all Masters during setup. Do not mix up the JobScheduler ID and the suffix -backup that is applied to a Backup Master installation directory.
  • The JobScheduler Master expects HTTP Basic Authentication.
  • The credentials are used from SCHEDULER_DATA/config/private/private.conf configuration file that offers an entry like this:

    jobscheduler.master.auth.users {
      JOBSCHEDULER_ID = "HASH_SCHEME:HASHED_PASSWORD"
    }
  • The HASH_SCHEME is specified by the prefix "plain" and is followed by the password:

    jobscheduler.master.auth.users {
      jobscheduler_prod = "plain:secret"
    }

Step 3: Set up the JobScheduler Master for HTTPS

  • Specify the ports with the <config> element in the SCHEDULER_DATA/config/scheduler.xml configuration file like this:

    • the HTTP port is required but is limited to the localhost network interface with the http_port attribute
    • the HTTPS port with the https_port attribute of like this:

      <spooler>
              <config http_port="localhost:40444" https_port="48444" mail_xslt_stylesheet="config/scheduler_mail.xsl">
                      <!-- other elements -->
              </config>
      </spooler>

Step 4: Configure the JOC Cockpit Truststore

On the JOC Cockpit server perform the following steps:

  • The JOC Cockpit Keystore can also be used as a Truststore where the certificates of a number of JobScheduler Masters are imported. 
    • Example for PKCS12 Keystore

      Example how to import the Master public certificate to JOC Cockpit PKCS12 Keystore
      # import Master public certificate from a file in PEM format (master-https.crt) identified by its alias name (master-https) to the JOC Cockpit PKCS12 keystore (joc-https.p12)
      keytool -importcert -noprompt -file "master-https.crt" -alias "master-https" -keystore "JETTY_BASE/etc/joc-https.p12" -storepass jobscheduler -storetype PKCS12 -trustcacerts 
    • Example for JKS Keystore

      Example how to import the Master public certificate to JOC Cockpit JKS Keystore
      # import Master public certificate from a file in PEM format (master-https.crt) identified by its alias name (master-https) to the JOC Cockpit JKS keystore (joc-https.jks)
      keytool -importcert -noprompt -file "master-https.crt" -alias "master-https" -keystore "JETTY_BASE/etc/joc-https.jks" -storepass jobscheduler -trustcacerts
    • Explanation:

      •  The alias names of any certificates have to be unique for the target Keystore.
    • Alternatively, you can import the JobScheduler Master certificates into the default Java Truststore (JAVA_HOME/lib/security/cacerts) of the Java installation which is used by Jetty, however, this setting will be lost if you switch the Java version.
  • If you use the Keystore of your JOC Cockpit Web Service in Jetty as the Truststore of the JobScheduler Master certificates then add the location of the Truststore to  the JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/joc.properties configuration file like this:

    • Example for PKCS12 keystore format

      ### Location of the Java truststore that contains the certificates of all
      ###   Controllers used for HTTPS connections. The path can be absolute or
      ###   relative to joc.properties
      
      truststore_path = ../../resources/joc/https-truststore.p12 
      truststore_type = PKCS12
      truststore_password = jobscheduler
    • Example for JKS keystore format

      ### Location of the Java truststore that contains the certificates of all
      ###   Controllers used for HTTPS connections. The path can be absolute or 
      ###   relative to joc.properties
      
      truststore_path = ../../resources/joc/https-truststore.jks
      truststore_type = JKS
      truststore_password = jobscheduler
  • Explanations
    • The relative path from the above example looks up the Keystore in the JETTY_BASE/etc directory.
  • The hostname verification can be added optionally in the JETTY_BASE/resources/joc/joc.properties configuration file.

    ################################################################################
    ### Should hostname verification be carried out for https certificate. 
    ### Default false
    
    https_with_hostname_verification = true

Caveat

  • In order to apply modifications to ./config/private/private.conf files of the Controller or to configuration files of JOC Cockpit a restart of the respective component is required.


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